The UNFCCC1 does not define ‘climate’ at all, while WMO2 used to define climate as: the average weather over a longer period of time. This website will provide information and ask, does science know what climate is?
1. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; 2.The World Meteorology Organisation

Reference links :


Dr Arnd Bernaerts;
Letter to the Editor of „NATURE“, 1992

Printed in:


Volume 360, 26 November 1992, page 292 Letter to the Editor

Climate change

SIR – The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and the earlier struggle for a  Convention on Climate Change may serve as a reminder that the 1982  Convention on the Law of the Sea has its tenth anniversary on 10 December. It is  not only one of the most comprehensive  and strongest international treaties ever negotiated but the best possible legal means to protect the global climate. But sadly, there has been little interest in  using it for this purpose. For too long, climate has been defined as the average weather and Rio was not able to define it at all. Instead, the Climate Change  Convention uses the term ‘climate sys- tem’, defining it as “the totality of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and  geosphere and their interactions”. All that this boils down to is ‘the interactions of the natural system’. What is the point of a legal term if it explains nothing?  For decades, the real question has  been who is responsible for the climate. Climate should have been defined as ‘the  continuation of the oceans by other means’. Thus, the 1982 Convention  could long since have been used to  protect the climate. After all, it is the  most powerful tool with which to force  politicians and the community of states into actions. 

Arnd Bernaerts  


Chronicle Archive 2007
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Year 2007

Essays from 1992 to 1997 on CLIMATE
by Dr. Arnd Bernaerts
“Legal Means for Understanding the Marine and climatic Change Issue”,
p.24 presented at the 28th Annual Conf. of the Law of the Sea Institute, Honolulu

“Conditions for the protection of the global climate”,
p.53 presented at GKSS Research Center Geesthacht

Black Sea-Model Case
--Paper, p.53, on
--Conf-Paper, p. 6

Four short texts
1994 Moscow

1994 LOS

1993 LOS

1992 Nature

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